Western world In a corner earlier this month when the U.S. 13 Russian ascended For attempting to interfere in the 2016 election. And, along with Great Britain, the U.S. Expose russia As criminal NotPetya, A costly cyber attack on Ukraine that was intentionally disguised as ransomware. Russian Modus operandi Special counsel Robert Mueller, or the British government, was not forbidden to hide the state-sponsored malfeasance behind the veneer of laudable evasion. Naming and Cinematography Key person
The strategy to address current and future weaknesses may include at least three goals for the US and other Western societies that are being targeted: first, being less vulnerable; Second, rapidly identifying and mitigating the effects of attacks; Third, be prepared to answer for all levels of crime.
Nation-states and their proximity are spying and attacking in cyberspace across national borders with regularity. Russia is not alone in targeting seven Iranian citizens of America Found guilty In 2012 to install malicious code on a computer controlling a dam in New York State. There were many chinese hackers Found guilty Last year for theft from American companies.
Free and open societies are more vulnerable to adverse conditions that exploit the principles and principles of press freedom. Kir GilesThe director of the Center for Conflict Studies Research in Oxford stated that “the emphasis on balance in many Western media ensures that Russian narrative, no matter how insidious, will be repeated for European and American audiences.”
The spread and integration of social media in society increases the reach of foreign campaigners. US citizens of all ages and backgrounds may be at the end of a psychological operation. And, this is enabled by the huge repository of personal data that are available for sale – or stolen through illegal hacks (such as those targeted Equifax And this Office of personnel management) – and can enable a foreign adversary to create a profile of virtually any American citizen.
On the first point, societies can certainly make a choice to mitigate vulnerabilities by avoiding certain conveniences. Cyber security guru Bruce Schneier The rationale for searching for Internet-connected opportunities at least. A prime example is the modern automobile, which operates with the help of millions of lines of software code and scores of computer processors. Such growth is linked to their cybervarnability, despite the fact that the basic operations of automobiles – accelerating, braking, steer and so forth – have been accomplished without computers for over a century. The next generation of cars are being designed to be powered by computers. Automobiles are moving in the wrong direction regarding vulnerability.
Editorial cartoon on Russian hacking and 2016 election
Lessons can also be taken from Cyber attack on Ukrainian power stations In 2015, employees were able to recover operations in less than seven hours due to redundant manual procedures. Redundant, non-information and communication technologies can help in both control mitigation and response.
Second, there will always be an arms race between attackers and defenders in cyberspace. Therefore, better processes and techniques will be required in manufacturing, procurement and sector to reduce vulnerabilities rapidly. Safe Computing devices more quickly. This is difficult for the private sector, which wants to race to new functionality in the market as rapidly as possible. The government sector historically lacked the ability to acquire information and communication technology quickly. In short, the private sector may be more intentional with its design efforts and, at the same time, the public sector, which buys from the private sector, may be less intentional to reduce the time required for field updates and response to problems. is. .
On the third point, being better able to respond to incidents, we need better planning for response to gray area operations, defined as operations that fall short of international definitions of aggression. Such actions, including the psychological operations described in the indictments, occur with frequency. Most importantly, answers should not be taken until any retaliation can be pursued.
In the US, the ability to react is also amazed by the stovepiped nature of leading organizations. Described in Rand research, Military, espionage agencies, law enforcement and the diplomatic corps all have roles, but also limit boundaries. This requires handoffs and generates turf battles between and within organizations. All this is stopping. In congressional testimony, cyber expert Clint Watts argued He said that the Russians are in a reverse position: “They excel in information warfare because they fundamentally unify cyber contact, influence, intelligence and diplomacy; and they do not pay attention to bureaucracy; they Reduce competition and efforts, ”he said.
The Müller indictment describes violations of US law. But like espionage, these actions are not considered gross violations of international law. About 20 years ago, Lawrence Greenberg, a legal scholar, Predicted: “The obscure state of international law about information warfare may leave room for the US to pursue information warfare activities. Conversely, it may allow hostile people to attack the US and its system.”
Similar intervention can be expected from Russia and other opponents who will undoubtedly try to influence the next election and, for this matter, follow all global elections. These expectations reflect Russian thought-leader and former general Valery Gerasimov, who quotes the Austrian poet Ingborg Bachmann: “The war is no longer declared.” This is especially true when it comes to cyberwar.